Words are the foundation of any written text. Words come under various categories, giving us different information and conveying emotion and emphasis. The important ones to notice are the verbs (doing words) and the nouns (things – including people, places and objects). There are also adverbs (they describe verbs, how an action was done), and adjectives (describing nouns, telling us about characteristics of the person, place or object). It is worth looking at these parts of speech at a detailed level to get a deeper understanding of how the human author is trying to convey his message and what is being emphasised in the passage.
Verbs – What is the action? Who is the subject (performing the action), who is the object (being acted upon)?
Adverbs – What further information do they give us about the verb? Why has the author given us this extra detail?
Nouns – What are the objects involved, or who are the people being referred to?
Adjectives – What are we being told about the people or objects, and why are we being told it?
http://www.grammar-monster.com has some great info on this stuff. The guy that runs this site also wrote a really informative little book called Grammar Rules (just for the other English geeks out there).